Process Optimisation and Intensification Principles and Tools: An Explorative Review for Potential Application in Minerals Processing

Purnawan, Irfan (2006) Process Optimisation and Intensification Principles and Tools: An Explorative Review for Potential Application in Minerals Processing. Curtin University of Technology. (Unpublished)

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This project mainly discusses about the application of process optimisation and intensification in mineral industry especially in Bayer Process of Alumina Refinery. Process intensification as a novel invention of developing apparatuses and techniques aims to bring significant improvements in manufacturing and processing as well as decreasing equipment size, energy consumption or waste production. Various applications of process intensification in general process industry are classified based on their strategies followed by an explorative review to determine which strategies could potentially be applied in Alumina Bayer Process. Those strategies are: • Miniaturisation • Combined reaction and separation • Real time and analysis • Multifunctional reaction • Use of alternative/non conventional energy sources • Novel distillation • Combined reaction and palletisation • Filtration/Centrifuging • Milling and Grinding • Mixing • Flow induced phase inversion (FIPI) • Hybrid Separation The twelve promising strategies are then considered to offer significant change in Alumina refineries as a sustainable processing industry. Intensification of grinding process is potential to be applied since grinding is the most power-intensive phase. Innovative technology is required to minimize energy consumption at that stage. This intensification provides active electro-neutralisation of free electric carriers by initiation of depolarisation of the comminuted material which offers the possibility of a new technique for grinding intensification other than ultrasonic grinding. A novel technique known as Sono crystallisation can also be applied in alumina refinery to eliminate oxalate and challenge to remove other impurities which leads to the plant throughput improvement and more advantages. Cross-flow filtration and electronic precipitators are also promising to be applied in Bayer process to replace the conventional apparatuses. In calcination process, technique of enriching O2 as an additional oxygen for kiln purpose generates a more efficient combustion and gives certain benefits such as higher production and reduction in fuel consumption. Other method such as membrane technology is also mentioned as an alternative to achieve better separation of components in the process. Intensification in any stage of Bayer process is in fact necessary to have an enhanced alumina refinery process. Better grinding for energy efficiency, Sono crystallisation for increased refinery output and lower chemical consumption leads to lower environmental impact, oxygen enrichment to improve energy efficiency of calcinations, membrane technology for faster and more efficient separation processes, and many more. Future research needs to be carried out. This includes the possibility of combining digestion and clarification into a single unit operation which will improve the stability of these processes or investigating potential means for improving the thermal energy efficiency of calcination. The alumina industry also needs to establish a strategy for managing its use of resources in the future. Applying the new technology, itself is not that easy. Some limitations including specific tools (simulation software) which is not available and lack of literature sources on detailed practical applications since process intensification is relatively new. Enhanced skill a knowledge of the new generation is considered to be essential for further improvement of process intensification in alumina refinery.

Item Type: Other
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering / Fakultas Teknik > S1 Chemical Engineering / Teknik Kimia
Depositing User: Irfan Purnawan
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2023 17:49
Last Modified: 04 Apr 2023 17:49

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